A Guide by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
 
Paper

Violence Against Copts in Egypt

107899783-(2)

Jason Brownlee

Paper

The Egyptian Orthodox Christian community—the Copts—has been the target of violence and discrimination since the 1970s and especially following the revolution that overthrew Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian state has done little to remedy the situation and has at times enabled the conflict between Muslims and Christians. Achieving religious freedom and equality depends on building state institutions that can guarantee all citizens’ constitutional rights.

Eman Babih

Internet Marketing & Social Media Expert

Report On Brotherhood Organization Crimes Against Christians In Egypt

 

the recent terror attack by gunmen opened fire on the Church of the Virgin in Cairo AlWarrak Area 300x288 Report On Brotherhood Organization Crimes Against Christians In Egypt

20/10/2013 the recent terror attack by gunmen opened fire on the Church of the Virgin in Cairo Al-Warrak Area, 18 got seriously injured and 5 got killed including Children and Women

 

Egypt failing to stop 'deeply disturbing' attacks on Coptic Christians

‘Failure to bring to justice those responsible for sectarian attacks sends the message that Copts and other religious minorities are fair game’ - Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui

The authorities in Egypt are failing to prevent “deeply disturbing” attacks on the country’s Coptic Christian minority, said Amnesty International today in a new report (9 October), and the organisation is calling for an investigation into a series of deadly sectarian incidents. Read the report

Press releases

Egypt: Evidence points to torture carried out by Morsi supporters

Evidence, including testimonies from survivors, indicates that supporters of deposed President Mohamed Morsi tortured individuals from a rival political camp, said Amnesty International.

Anti-Morsi protesters told Amnesty International how they were captured, beaten, subjected to electric shocks or stabbed by individuals loyal to the former President. Since mass rival rallies began in late June, as of 28 July, eight bodies have arrived at the morgue in Cairo bearing signs of torture. At least five of these were found near areas where pro-Morsi sit-ins were being held.

“Allegations that torture is being carried out by individuals are extremely serious and must be investigated as a matter of urgency,” said Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, Deputy Director for the Middle East and North Africa at Amnesty International.

“The apparent use of torture for reprisal attacks is unacceptable. People should not take the law into their own hands. Political leaders have a responsibility to condemn these criminal acts and call on their supporters to renounce such human rights abuses. The Egyptian government must not, however, use these crimes, carried out by few, as a pretext to collectively punish all pro-Morsi supporters or use excessive force to disperse their sit-ins.”

 

Egypt: Evidence points to torture carried out by Morsi supporters

Anti-Morsi protesters told Amnesty International of abuses they suffered at the hands of his supporters.

Anti-Morsi protesters told Amnesty International of abuses they suffered at the hands of his supporters.

© Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Allegations that torture is being carried out by individuals are extremely serious and must be investigated as a matter of urgency.
Source: 
Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, Deputy Director for the Middle East and North Africa at Amnesty International.

Evidence, including testimonies from survivors, indicates that supporters of deposed President Mohamed Morsi tortured individuals from a rival political camp, said Amnesty International.

 

Egypt: Security forces abandon Coptic Christians during deadly attack in Luxor

On 5 July 2013, four Coptic Christian men were killed by local residents in the Nagah Hassan district of Dab’iya village, some 18 kilometres west of Luxor.

On 5 July 2013, four Coptic Christian men were killed by local residents in the Nagah Hassan district of Dab’iya village, some 18 kilometres west of Luxor.

 

It is outrageous that this attack was left to escalate unhindered in this way. Amnesty International has documented a series of cases in the past where Egypt’s security forces used unnecessary force or live fire during demonstrations, yet in this case they held back even though people’s lives were threatened
Source: 
Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, Deputy Director of Amnesty International’s Middle East and North Africa Programme
Date: 
Tue, 23/07/2013

 

  

Egypt: Sectarian Attacks Amid Political Crisis

Scant Protection As Christians Attacked in Several Cities

A protester holds a cross and a Koran during a protest against ousted President Mohamed Morsy at Tahrir Square in Cairo on

(New York) – Egyptian Christians have been targeted in several attacks since the military’s ouster of former President Mohamed Morsy. The authorities should urgently investigate the attacks, hold the perpetrators to account, and determine whether the police could have prevented or stopped the violence.

 

Egypt OGN v.1 7 May 2013

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 1.1 1.4

2. Country assessment

Actors of protection

Internal relocation

Country guidance caselaw

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4


Vice President Ashton response to escalating situation in Egypt 

Answer to Parliamentary questions 22 April 2013                           E-004467-13

Question for written answer
to the Commission
Rule 117
Roger Helmer (EFD)

Is the Commission aware of the escalating situation in Egypt as regards religious persecution? This is on the increase and becoming more vicious, as demonstrated by recent clashes in which six Coptic Christians and one Muslim are estimated to have died.

Does the Commission propose to take any action to help re-establish the peaceful co-existence of different religious groups in the area?

Answer given by High Representative/Vice President Ashtonon behalf of the Commission(20.6.2013)   

The Commission is aware of the escalating situation in Egypt concerning religious minorities, as the recent clashes in which six Copts and one Muslim died. The HR/VP issued a statement on 7 April while travelling to the region, urging for restraint and for the security forces to control the situation. The EU Delegation closely monitors the situation and its follow-up.

 

International Religious Freedom Report for 2012

Summery

In Egypt, the government generally failed to prevent, investigate, or prosecute crimes against members of religious minorities, including Coptic Christians, which fostered a climate of impunity. In some cases, authorities reacted slowly or with insufficient resolve when mobs attacked Christians and their property

In Egypt, anti-Semitic sentiment in the media was widespread and sometimes included Holocaust denial or glorification. On October 19, President Morsy said “Amen” during televised prayers in Mansour after an imam stated, “Oh Allah ... grant us victory over the infidels. Oh Allah, destroy the Jews and their supporters.” This is a common prayer in Egyptian mosques and came in a litany of other prayers. Also in October, Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Mohamed Badei made several anti-Semitic statements, including saying in a sermon that was also published online that “It is time for the Muslim [nation] to unite for the sake of Jerusalem and Palestine after the Jews have increased the corruption in the world….” He added that “Zionists only know the way of force.”

In Egypt, sectarian violence continued, with little accountability for the perpetrators. Bahais, Shias, and other minorities faced personal and collective discrimination.

 

European Court of Human Rights ruling:

Removal of a Coptic Christian to Egypt would expose him

to a risk of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment

 

Double click above to read more

تقرير منظمة العفو الدولية لعام 2013

حالة حقوق الإنسان في العالم

مصر جمهورية مصر العربيةرئيس الدولة: محمد مرسي (حل محل محمد حسين طنطاوي، في يونيو/حزيران)

رئيس الحكومة: هشام قنديل (حل محل كمال الجنزوري، في أغسطس/آب)

أسفرت الاحتجاجات على حكم المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة عن مقتل ما لا يقل عن 28 شخصاً على أيدي قوات الأمن في القاهرة والسويس. واستخدمت قوات الأمن المركزي وقوات الجيش القوة المفرطة لتفريق المتظاهرين، وادعى متظاهرون فيما بعد أنهم تعرضوا للتعذيب أو غيره من صنوف المعاملة السيئة أثناء احتجازهم.

وفي نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني وديسمبر/كانون الأول، اندلعت مظاهرات معارضة للرئيس وأخرى مؤيدة لها، وجنح بعضها للعنف.

واستمرت المحاكمات الجائرة أمام محكمة أمن الدولة العليا طوارئ، وظلت قوات الأمن تتصرف باعتبارها فوق القانون. وحُكم على الرئيس السابق حسني مبارك ووزير داخليته السابق بالسجن المؤبد لإدانتهم بتهم تتعلق بقتل متظاهرين أثناء انتفاضة عام 2011، بينما بُرئ كثيرون آخرون ممن يُشتبه أنهم ارتكبوا أعمال القتل.

ولم يُحاسب أي من أعضاء المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة عن الانتهاكات التي ارتُكبت خلال حكم المجلس. وشكَّل الرئيس محمد مرسي لجنة لتقصي الحقائق في الانتهاكات التي وقعت خلال الفترة من يناير/كانون الثاني 2011 إلى يونيو/حزيران 2012، وأصدر قرارات عفو عن بعض المدنيين الذين حُوكموا أمام محاكم عسكرية وعفواً عاماً عن الجرائم التي ارتكبها متظاهرون خلال المظاهرات ضد حكم المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة. واستمر التمييز ضد الأقليات الدينية. وحُوكم بعض الصحفيين والنشطاء بتهمتي «إهانة الرئيس» وازدراء الأديان.

وظلت المرأة تعاني من التمييز في القانون وفي الواقع الفعلي، فضلاً عن التحرش الجنسي الواسع النطاق. وظلت آلاف العائلات تعيش في أحياء عشوائية في «مناطق غير آمنة»، بينما كانت آلاف العائلات الأخرى عرضة لخطر الإخلاء القسري. وذكرت الأنباء أن بعض المهاجرين قُتلوا على أيدي قوات الأمن وهم يحاولون عبور الحدود إلى إسرائيل، وكان آخرون ضحية للاستغلال على أيدي المهربين في شبه جزيرة سيناء. وصدرت أحكام بالإعدام ضد ما لا يقل عن 91 شخصاً، ولم يُعرف ما إذا كانت قد نُفذت أية إعدامات.

 

 

Annual Report 2013

The state of the world's human rights

Egypt

Head of state
Mohamed Morsi (replaced Mohamed Hussein Tanawi in June)
Head of government
Hisham Qandeel (replaced Kamal Ganzouri in August)

Protests against military rule resulted in the killing of at least 28 protesters by security forces in Cairo and Suez. Riot police and the army used excessive force to disperse protesters, who later alleged that they were tortured or otherwise ill-treated in custody. Protests, sometimes violent, by opponents and supporters of the President took place in November and December. Unfair trials by Emergency Supreme State Security Courts continued and security forces continued to act above the law. Former President Hosni Mubarak and the former Minister of Interior were sentenced to life imprisonment for killings of protesters during the 2011 uprising; many other suspected perpetrators were acquitted. No members of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) were held to account for violations committed during their rule. President Mohamed Morsi established a committee to investigate violations committed between January 2011 and June 2012. He issued pardons for some civilians tried by military courts and a general amnesty for offences by protesters during demonstrations against military rule. Discrimination against religious minorities persisted. Journalists and activists were prosecuted for “insulting the President” and blasphemy. Women faced discrimination in law and practice as well as widespread sexual harassment. Thousands of families continued to live in “unsafe areas” in informal settlements (slums), while thousands more faced threats of forced eviction. Migrants were reportedly killed by security forces while attempting to cross into Israel or were exploited by traffickers in the Sinai Peninsula. At least 91 people were sentenced to death. It was not known whether there were any executions.

 

Freedom of religion scarce in Iran, China

Saudi Arabia in list of 8 nations ‘of particular concern’

Egypt generally failed to prevent, investigate, or prosecute crimes against members of religious minorities, including Coptic Christians

By Guy Taylor 

Declaring that “freedom of religion is a core American value,” Secretary of State John F. Kerry Monday released his department’s annual worldwide religious freedom report, which found “worrying” and “negative trends” around the globe.

“The freedom to profess and practice one’s faith, to believe or not to believe, or to change one’s beliefs, that is a birthright of every human being, and that’s what we believe,” Mr. Kerry told reporters in Washington, in remarks accompanying the release of the “International Religious Freedom Report for 2012.”

Honor US values and interests: Back religious freedom abroad ...

 

By Katrina Lantos Swett

Fifteen years ago, on May 14, 1998, U.S. House of Representatives voted in favor of a landmark effort to promote a pivotal human right abroad. In October of that year, the Senate also acted and President Clinton signed the International Religious Freedom Act, or IRFA, into law. Among other provisions, IRFA created the Office of International Religious Freedom in the State Department and the independent, bipartisan Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF), of which I am chair.

 

As part of our mandate, USCIRF issues an annual report on the global state of religious freedom. On April 30, we issued our 2013 report.

 

How is this freedom faring today? As our report confirms, it is imperiled daily. Violations range from restrictions on building houses of worship to more severe abuses, including arbitrary detention, torture, and even murder.

 

For humanitarian reasons alone, we should care. But in our ever-uncertain post-9/11 world, we have further cause for concern.

 

Egypt risks drifting further away from human rights ideals that drove revolution – Pillay

GENEVA (8 May 2013) – The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay on Wednesday urged the Egyptian Government to take steps to ensure that the current version of a draft law on civil society organizations is laid open to careful examination by Egyptian and international human rights experts, and, based on their advice, is brought into line with international standards, before it is adopted by the Shura Council.

“If a law is passed that severely constrains the activities of civil society organizations, whose constructive contributions will be crucial to the country’s future direction as an inclusive democracy, it will mark a further blow to the hopes and aspirations that were raised during the 2011 ‘Egyptian Revolution,’” she said. “This is a critical moment, with mounting concerns about a range of issues. These include the new Constitution and the manner in which it was adopted, the apparent efforts to limit the authority of the judiciary, and this current draft law which risks placing civil society under the thumb of security ministries which have a history of abusing human rights and an interest in minimizing scrutiny.”

   

United States Commission on International Religious Freedom report 2013

 

EGYPT

      

USCIRF STATUS:

Tier 1 Country of Particular Concern

     

Click here to read the report. 

 

 

 

House of Commons 

Hansard of: Persecution of Christians

4.25 pm

Naomi Long (Belfast East) (Alliance): I am pleased to have secured this debate on the increasing threat to freedom of religion in certain parts of the world, which is an important issue. Due to time pressure, I apologise in advance for the fact that I may not be able to accept many interventions. These are issues, however, on which I have placed significant emphasis during my time in Parliament not only because I believe passionately in the inherent importance of protecting fundamental human rights but because the evidence demonstrates that those societies that protect and respect fundamental rights tend to fare better in their protection of other human rights.

In preparation for this debate, I have worked closely with Open Doors, an organisation focusing on freedom for persecuted Christian Churches. I also thank Christian Solidarity Worldwide, His Grace, Bishop Angaelos of the Coptic Orthodox Church in the UK, and others who have circulated briefing materials ahead of today’s debate.

 

Egypt’s Coptic Christians must be protected from sectarian violence

Coptic Christians protest in Cairo, Egypt, May 2011.

Coptic Christians protest in Cairo, Egypt, May 2011.

Tahsin Bakr/Demotix

It is high time for the authorities to take sectarian violence and threats seriously. Time and time again, President Morsi claimed to be President of all Egyptians. Now, he needs to take action to ensure that sectarian violence is prevented and when it occurs it is properly investigated, and those responsible face justice.

Source:

Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, Middle East and North Africa Deputy Director at Amnesty International.  

A rise in tensions between religious communities in the town of Wasta, about one hundred kilometres south of Cairo, in recent weeks highlights the failure of the Egyptian authorities to protect Egypt’s Coptic Christians, the largest religious minority in the country.

 

  

Eurpean Parliament concerned about the situation of the Egyptian judiciary, women rights and Freedom of religion produces resolution.

 

Urges the VP/HR and the Commission to develop the ‘more for more’ principle, with a particular focus on civil society, women’s rights and minority rights, in a more coherent and practical way, including clear conditions and benchmarks should the Egyptian Government steer away from democratic reforms and respect for human rights.

 

European Parliament resolution on the situation in Egypt (2013/2542(RSP)

 

pursuant to Rule 110(2) and (4) of the Rules of Procedure

replacing the motions by the following groups:

Verts/ALE (B7‑0095/2013)

PPE (B7‑0096/2013)

ECR (B7‑0097/2013)

ALDE (B7‑0099/2013)

S&D (B7‑0100/2013)


 

on the situation in Egypt (2013/2542(RSP))


Elmar Brok, Cristian Dan Preda, Roberta Angelilli, Elena Băsescu, Arnaud Danjean, Mário David, Sari Essayah, Salvatore Iacolino, Eduard Kukan, Nadezhda Neynsky, Ria Oomen-Ruijten, Hans‑Gert Pöttering, Jacek Protasiewicz, Tokia Saïfi, Peter Šťastný, Alf Svensson, Dominique Vlasto, Anne Delvaux, Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou, Radvilė Morkūnaitė-Mikulėnienė on behalf of the PPE Group
Véronique De Keyser, Pino Arlacchi, Corina Creţu, Saïd El Khadraoui, Ana Gomes, Liisa Jaakonsaari, María Muñiz De Urquiza, Raimon Obiols, Pier Antonio Panzeri, Kristian Vigenin on behalf of the S&D Group
Marietje Schaake, Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, Ivo Vajgl, Jelko Kacin, Johannes Cornelis van Baalen, Alexandra Thein, Graham Watson, Marielle de Sarnez, Edward McMillan-Scott, Antonyia Parvanova, Robert Rochefort, Louis Michel, RamonTremosa i Balcells, Izaskun Bilbao Barandica, Hannu Takkula, Kristiina Ojuland on behalf of the ALDE Group
Judith Sargentini, Hélène Flautre, Jean-Paul Besset, Raül Romeva i Rueda, Margrete Auken on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group
Charles Tannock, Peter van Dalen, Valdemar Tomaševski, Sajjad Karim on behalf of the ECR Group  


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